Phasmid Biology and Behaviour
Reviews of the occurrence of spermatophores in phasmids (Bragg, 1991a; Carlberg, 1981) and subsequent records (Bragg, 1991b, 1992, 2001) provide strong evidence that this is the normal mechanism for sperm transfer in the order. Spermatophores have been found in 21 species, five families, and nine subfamilies (see table below). Seven of these records are based on my Bornean material; one is also a Bornean species, Phyllium bioculatum, although the spermatophore was recorded from non-Bornean material. All records of spermatophores have been made in captive specimens.