Phasmid Study Group

Stick insect & Leaf insect enthusiasts!


Reviews of the occurrence of spermatophores in phasmids (Bragg, 1991a; Carlberg, 1981) and subsequent records (Bragg, 1991b, 1992, 2001) provide strong evidence that this is the normal mechanism for sperm transfer in the order. Spermatophores have been found in 21 species, five families, and nine subfamilies (see table below). Seven of these records are based on my Bornean material; one is also a Bornean species, Phyllium bioculatum, although the spermatophore was recorded from non-Bornean material. All records of spermatophores have been made in captive specimens.

The photograph below shows a spermatophore of Aretaon asperrimus (Redtenbacher, 1908).  The spermatophore can be see as a white sphere in the end of the female's abdomen.


Below is the same spermatophore after I removed it from the female's abdomen.

Spermatophores have been found in the species:

Family Subfamily Species
Bacillidae Bacillinae

Bacillus rossius (Rossi)


Phalces longiscarphus (de Haan)

Heteropterygidae Heteropteryginae

Haaniella grayii (Westwood)



Haaniella muelleri (de Haan)



Haaniella saussurei Kirby



Aretaon asperrimus (Redtenbacher)
Diapheromeridae Lonchodinae

Lonchodes jejunus (Kirby)



Menexenus nudiusculus Hausleithner



Rhamphosipyloidea gorkomi (Hausleithner)



Phenacephorus auriculatus (Brunner)



Phenacephorus cornucervi Brunner
  Necrosciinae Diesbachia hellotis (Westwood)
Phasmatidae Bacteriinae

Lamponius guerini (Saussure)


Phasmatinae Acrophylla wuelfingi (Redtenbacher)
    Anchiale maculata (Olivier)
    Medauroidea extradentatus (Brunner)


Ramulus sp. [Carlberg's sp. 1.]
    Clitarchus hookeri (White)


Tropidoderinae Extatosoma tiaratum (Macleay)
Phyllidae Phylliinae

Phyllium bioculatum Gray

Timematidae Timematinae

Timema californica (Scudder)



Bragg, P.E. (1991a) Spermatophores in Phasmida. Entomologist, 110(2): 76‑80.

Bragg, P.E. (1991b) More spermatophores in Phasmida. Phasmid Study Group Newsletter, 48:8.

Bragg, P.E. (1992) More spermatophores produced by Lonchodinae. Phasmid Studies, 1(2): 25.

Bragg, P.E. (2001) Phasmids of Borneo. Natural History Publications Borneo, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.

Carlberg, U. (1981) Spermatophores of Baculum extradentatum (Brunner von Wattenwyl) and other Phasmida.  Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 117: 125‑127.

Taxonomic name: 
Phasmida (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Lamponius (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Lamponius guerini (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Bacillidae (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Bacillinae (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Bacillus (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Bacillus rossius (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Phalces (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Heteropterygidae (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Heteropteryginae (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Haaniella (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Haaniella grayii (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Haaniella muelleri (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Haaniella saussurei (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Aretaon (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Aretaon asperrimus (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Phylliinae (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Phyllium (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Phasmatidae (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Lonchodinae (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Lonchodes (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Lonchodes jejunus (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Menexenus (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Menexenus nudiusculus (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Phenacephorus (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Phenacephorus auriculatus (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Phenacephorus cornucervi (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Baculum (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Phasmatinae (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Clitarchus (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Clitarchus hookeri (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Acrophylla (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Acrophylla wuelfingi (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Anchiale (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Anchiale maculata (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Tropidoderinae (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Extatosoma (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Extatosoma tiaratum (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Ramulus (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Medauroidea (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Diapheromeridae (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Necrosciinae (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Diesbachia (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Diesbachia hellotis (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Rhamphosipyloidea (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Rhamphosipyloidea gorkomi (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Timematidae (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Timematinae (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009), Timema (SpeciesFile 28/09/2009)
PSG Publications: 
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith